The blend of genealogy and history: the future of both?

Not too long ago I was reading the book The Black Family in Slavery and Freedom, 1750-1925by Herbert Gutman (New York: Random House, 1976). This book is considered a standard in the field of the study of enslaved families, though it also has many opponents.

Reading the book through the eyes of a genealogist who specializes in the study of enslaved families, I was struck by a weakness in Gutman’s methodology. While he does indeed utilize a wide variety of record groups, making the greatest use of Freedmen’s Bureau records and manuscript plantation records, Gutman only uses a single record group for any individual slave or group of slaves. As a genealogist we know that we must examine all relevant records in order to come to a genealogical conclusion. Gutman’s conclusions about the families he discusses should have been bolstered through the use of federal census enumerations, tax lists, probate records, and the combination of deeds and maps. Yet he does not use these records and his identifications of enslaved families suffer because of this negligence.

But the bottom line for Gutman was not how specific slaves were related. His identification of the relationships between various slaves served only to demonstrate the truth of his conclusions. This is the difference between historians and genealogists. For the genealogist, the identification of an individual or specific relationships among various individuals are the conclusions we seek. For the historian, these identifications are the evidence upon which their conclusions are formed. The conclusions are much more generalized. Gutman believed that “enslaved families did this” while his detractors and opponents believe that “enslaved families did that.” Whether these conclusions are true for a specific family is beside the point.

I read quite a bit of historical research to improve my genealogical research. Books, journal articles, and dissertations all express the latest thoughts of this or that historian. I appreciate these perspectives because they help me blend my genealogical research methodologies with more generalized historical research methodologies.

Understanding the generalities can provide significant insight into the families I am researching. Did they behave in a manner common to others of their background in that location during that time period? Or were they “odd men out”? This may help to explain and identify their actions throughout their lives.

This is just a single example of how historical research can inform genealogical research.

I began this essay by speaking of the weaknesses of Gutman’s study. Had his conclusions been based on a more methodological–and genealogical–study of the relevant evidence, rather than a select group of records, his conclusions would have been far more, well, conclusive.

This is a single example of how genealogical research can inform historical research.

I recently became aware of the work of Mark Auslander. Dr. Auslander is an Associate Professor of Anthropology and the Director of the Museum of Culture and Environment at Central Washington University, in Ellensburg, Washington.

In an interview concerning his book, The Accidental Slaveowner: Revisiting a Myth of Race and Finding an American Family, Dr. Auslander described a research trail that will sound familiar to genealogists:

I had learned at the National Archives in Washington D.C. that Kitty’s second son was named Russell Nathan Boyd; might he have been named for his father I asked Tolstoy, who purred approvingly.  So I called up Freedman’s Savings Bank records on, and lo and behold, there was a “Nathan Boyd,” opening a bank account in Atlanta in 1871, listing as his wife “Catherine, Dead” and as his eldest son, “Alfred Boyd.”  That led me and my wife to Keosauqua, Iowa, where Alfred had settled after the Civil War, and along the trail of African Methodist Episcopal churches he had pastored in the midwest, leading to the church in Rockford, Illinois where his great grandson Mr. Caldwell, an enormously kind man in his eighties, served as trustee.[1]

Dr. Auslander even used!

In another post, on his blog Cultural Productions, Dr. Auslander illustrates his philosophies on blending historical and genealogical research:

My recently completed book manuscript (The Accidental Slaveowner: Revisiting a Myth of the American South) attempts to integrate restorative cemetery work and genealogical research–in a way that is linked to a single institution of higher learning, Emory University.[2]

I have not yet read The Accidental Slaveowner, but it has been placed at the top of my “to-read” list.

I would like to applaud Dr. Mark Auslander, and his recognition of the value that genealogical research can have for historians.


[1] Derek Krisoff, “Mark Auslander interviewed about The Accidental Slave Owner,” in Mark Auslander’s The Accidental Slaveowner Blog, posted on 1 August 2011 ( : accessed 27 Aug 2011).

[2] Mark Auslander, “Slavery and Academic Reparations,” Cultural Productions blog, posted 4 Sep 2010 ( : accessed 27 Aug 2011).

What Exactly Do I Research?

This post is inspired by the post, “What Exactly Do I Research?” by Marian Pierre-Louis in her blog, Marian’s Roots & Rambles (18 June 2011). In this post, Marian describes her research interests. I enjoyed this post quite a bit, and have decided to emulate Marian here. Some of you may think you know what I research, and some of you may not have the slightest idea. So consider this an introduction to my research. …

My main interest is in writing, but my main income comes through client research projects. There are several kinds of projects that I work on:

  • Document retrievals. If someone just needs records from Maryland or Delaware, and lives too far to obtain them for themselves, they will hire me to do so.
  • Lineage research. The vast majority of my research projects are for clients who simply want to trace their lineage, but either do not have the time, knowledge, or access to records, to do so for themselves.
  • Brickwall research. In many cases, clients have worked on a problem for years, and finally decide to hire someone to help them with breaking through the brick wall. This is my favorite kind of project. Sometimes I cannot break through the brickwall, but I do have a high rate of success.

I have conducted research throughout every county in Maryland, though I have the most experience in Prince George’s, Anne Arundel, and Baltimore counties, and Baltimore city. Recent projects have been located in Frederick, Charles, St. Mary’s, and Dorchester counties, in Maryland, and New Castle and Sussex counties, in Delaware.

However, I have also researched African American families around the country, including Texas (click here for an ongoing Texas case study), Louisiana, Mississippi, and Virginia. My own family (not African American) comes primarily from New York, Connecticut, Virginia, and North Carolina, and my wife’s family is primarily from Tennessee, Mississippi, and South Dakota.

Aside from my clients (and my own family, if I ever had time to research them anymore!), I have several research interests of my own.

My primary interests are in African American genealogy and the U. S. Civil War and “Reconstruction” eras. As much progress as has been made on all of these fronts, there are still so many unknown or little-known resources yet to be tapped. Tying into these interests are several other projects:

  • Record groups nationwide, no matter how large or small their focus, that provide direct evidence connecting slaves or former slaves with their slave owners. Beyond the use of these records that provide direct evidence, I am also working on a guide to using indirect evidence to identify the slave owners of former slaves.
  • Compensated emancipation in the border states. Especially the records of the Slave Claims Commissions, which were active in Maryland, Delaware, Kentucky, Missouri, Tennessee, and West Virginia, during and immediately following the U. S. Civil War.
  • Slavery in southern Maryland. For nearly five years, I have been collecting records concerning enslaved families in Prince George’s County, Maryland. This project has included Civil War service and pension records, probate records, bills of sale, runaway slave advertisements, vital records, federal census records, tax lists, and several other record groups concerning slaves and their owners. Some of these families will be the subjects of research case studies, and transcriptions / abstracts / indexes of some of the records will begin to be published later this year. Other segments of this research project will be appearing in magazine and journal articles, and presentations/webinars.

Another of my research interests is network theory. A multi-faceted and multidisciplinary study of how networks develop, network theory can be applied to the study of communities. The study of our ancestral communities has already been proven to aid our genealogical research, but I believe that network theory and its application to the development of these communities can take our field to a whole new level. A brief article that I wrote on the subject–though barely scratching the surface of the potential application of network theory–was published in the article “Small Worlds: Researching Social Networks,” published in the Sept/Oct 2009 issue of Family Chronicle magazine. These theories are also being applied in the above long-term project on the enslaved families of Prince George’s County.

Now you know a little more about me and my research.

For more information, you can visit my website, particularly the “Publications” page. Or use the links below for more on my recent books:

If you would like to cite this post: Michael Hait, “What Exactly Do I Research?,” Planting the Seeds: Genealogy as a Profession blog, posted 28 Jun 2011 ( : accessed [access date]).

State genealogical society journals

State genealogical and historical societies have long been on the front lines of local genealogical research. As a service to our fellow genealogists, Harold Henderson and I have surveyed and compiled a list of currently active genealogical society journals. These journals publish everything from local record transcriptions and abstracts to multigenerational family histories.

Harold recently attended the “Writing and Publishing for Genealogists” course at the Institute for Genealogy and Historical Research (IGHR) at Samford University, coordinated by Thomas Jones, CG, the editor of the National Genealogical Society Quarterly. State genealogical society journals were discussed during this course. Harold mentioned this briefly in the post “IGHR Samford Day Four: states’ opportunity,” in his blog Midwestern Microhistory.

You can read the official announcement of this resource in Harold’s Midwestern Microhistory blog: “State and Regional Genealogy Journals: The List.”

To access this new resource, see the article “State & Regional Genealogical Society Journals” on my website at

If you know of any additions or corrections, please leave a comment on this post, or email me directly.

Do you have a genealogy project?

The most immediate reason that brings all of us into genealogy is, of course, a desire to learn more about our own families. Even professional genealogists like myself started by researching our own families. I had been researching my own family history off and on for almost twenty years, and intensively for almost ten years, before I even considered becoming a professional.

Before I come back to this, I would like to recommend a website I recently discovered: “1698 Southold LI Census: A Study of Identities, Town of Southold, Suffolk County, Long Island, New York,” by Norris M. Taylor, Jr.

On this website, Mr. Taylor has started with a single record set at the core, the 1698 census of Southold, New York, and explored the community represented within these records by comparing the information with that held by other contemporary records. In conducting this intensive research, and compiling this information, Mr. Taylor has succeeded in two accomplishments. First, he has created a resource that anyone with roots in 1698 Southold (including this author) can use with their own research. Second, and more importantly, Mr. Taylor has combined the methods of genealogical research with the methods of historical research, and produced a deep exploration of an entire community.

I conducted a similar project several years ago, using a community of Palatine Germans who settled in Schoharie County, New York in the early 18th century–a community of which quite a few of my direct ancestors (and of course their families) were a part. My project has unfortunately had to sit on the shelf for a few years as other opportunities have come up, and limitations in my access to certain records have crept in.

However, I am currently about four years into a separate project, one where the access to records is much better, exploring a community of slaves and slave owners in Prince George’s County, Maryland. The fruits of this project will hopefully begin to see the light of day over the next several months.

I would like to ask other researchers: do you have a genealogy project?

Even as we explore our own direct ancestors, we must remember that these individuals did not live on islands by themselves. They were parts of communities. By fully exploring the family and other relationships within a single community, we are able to gain insight into that community, and our ancestor’s relative place within it. But more importantly, it is through broad community projects of this nature that we are able to break down even the toughest brick walls.

It is not at all uncommon to find exactly this type of community work in historical literature. Academic history, however, is interested more in generalities than in specific individuals, so the relationships are not often the focus. Just a few of hundreds of articles that I have collected over the years:

  • Thomas, William G., III, and Edward L. Ayers. “An Overview: The Differences Slavery Made: A Close Analysis of Two American Communities.”  The American Historical Review, Vol. 108 (2003), pp. 1299-1307.
  • Kenzer, Robert C. “The Black Businessman in the Postwar South: North Carolina, 1865-1880.”  The Business History Review, Vol. 63 (1989), pp. 61-87.
  • Cody, Cheryll Ann. “Kin and Community among the Good Hope People after Emancipation.” Ethnohistory, Vol. 41 (1993), pp. 25-72.
  • Steffen, Charles G. “The Rise of the Independent Merchant in the Chesapeake: Baltimore County, 1660-1769.” The Journal of American History, Vol. 76 (1989), pp. 9-33.
  • Baptist, Edward E. “The Migration of Planters to Antebellum Florida: Kinship and Power.” The Journal of Southern History, Vol. 62 (1996), pp. 527-554

Each of these journal articles is extremely useful contextual information for those who have ancestry within these geographic or demographic areas.

The difference between these projects and those that I would recommend genealogists conduct are several. Many of these historical works will focus only on a single record set or a limited number of additional records, but fail to explore other record groups. In other words, they fail to meet the Genealogical Proof Standard, in many cases. The historians have not completed a “reasonably exhaustive search” for all relevant records, not evaluated and correlated the evidence, and not reconciled contradictory evidence. This certainly limits the reliability of their conclusions with regard to individual family relationships. They can be excused because these individual relationships are not usually the focus of their research. For genealogists, these relationships would be the focus.

Here are some links to other broad genealogical projects I have come across over the years:

Prince George’s Co., Maryland, 1864 Civil War Draftees (Part 3)

SOURCE:  Baltimore Sun, Baltimore, Md., 21 Oct 1864, pg. 1

Information extracted by Michael Hait

Ellicott’s Mills, Oct. 19, 1864:  6th, 7th, & 8th election districts of Prince George’s County

Sixth District

  • Addison Hall, slave of James Addison
  • Lloyd Nelson, slave of Ann Lowe
  • Thomas Pearce, farmer
  • Abner T. Hood, stone-cutter, Long Old Fields
  • Geo. T. Cater, farmer, near Haverson’s Shop
  • Jonathan Allen, farmer, near Grimesville
  • Robert Lyles, slave Gustavus Finnattis
  • Lawrence Simius, slave Wm. [Guston?]
  • John R. Timmerson, farmer, Long Old Fields
  • Henry O. Boon, carpenter, do.
  • Richard Williams, farmer
  • Julius H. Pyles, farmer, near Haverson’s Shop
  • Richard Haley, colored, carpenter
  • Henry G. Mitchell, wheelwright, Long Old Fields
  • Frederick [Aller?], tavern-keeper
  • William Gray, farmer, Long Old Fields
  • William Henson, slave of Ann Lowe
  • Richard Thomas, colored, carpenter
  • Henry Norton, slave of Thos. Brown
  • Levi Roberson, colored, farmer

Seventh District

  • Francis Taylor, slave of W. W. W. Bowie
  • James Parker, colored, laborer, Queen Ann
  • Edward Brooks, slave of Violita [Sperg?]
  • Edward Hardesty of R., clerk, Queen Ann
  • Wm. Queen, slave of Sarah H. Belmear
  • Edward Hardesty, wheel wright, Queen Ann
  • Richard L. Ogle, farmer
  • Columbus Hall, laborer, Queen Ann
  • Isaac Herbert, slave of B. O. Mulligan
  • Wm. Brown, slave of Margaret Woodward
  • Jas. Harwood, physician, Collington
  • Samuel Crawford, slave of the estate of Benj Lee
  • Joseph Done, laborer, Queen Ann
  • Nace Queen, slave of A. J. [Jocee?]
  • Robert Jackson, slave of James Warren
  • Charles Fletcher, slave of John B. Mulligan
  • Frank Softy, slave of the estate of John Contee
  • Thomas A. Duckett, farmer
  • Lewis Wood, laborer, Collington
  • Wm. Wood, slave of Wm. D. Bowie
  • Edward Watkins, farmer
  • Thomas Hughes, laborer, Collington
  • Wm. Clark of Wm., farmer, Queen Ann
  • Samuel Gibson, slave of James Warren
  • John Wood, slave of Wm. Y. Clark
  • Thos. Campbell, slave of Chas. Hill
  • Andw. Stewart, slave of Walter H. Mullinix
  • Franklin Beall, laborer, Collington
  • Jesse Wood, carpenter
  • Geo. Simmons, slave of M. S. Plummer
  • Z. Carrick, laborer
  • Aloysius Hopkins, laborer
  • David [Dilson?], slave of Wash. J. Beall
  • Albert Hardesty, laborer, Queen Ann
  • George Gaither, colored, laborer, do.
  • Joshua G. Clark, farmer, do.
  • Daniel Williams, colored, laborer, do.
  • Wm. Crawford, slave of estate of Benjamin Lee
  • Samuel Gray, slave of Charles Hill
  • Frank Woodson, slave of Wm. B. Hill
  • Francis Herbert, slave of D. O. Mulligan
  • W. W. Elliott, farmer, Collington
  • Edward Fletcher, col’d, laborer, Queen Ann
  • Edward Brown, slave of Edward Duckett
  • James H. Wells, farmer
  • Jerry Wood, slave of Wm. B. Hill
  • Benjamin King of R., tanner, Queen Ann
  • Joshua Johnson, slave of Walter H. Mullikin

Eighth District

  • John Acton, manager, Woodville
  • F. A. Ward, planter, Horsehead
  • Chas. W. Smith, planter, Woodville
  • Stanley Adams, slave of Catharine Gardner, near Horsehead
  • Adam Glasgow, slave of Thomas Summerville, near Woodville
  • Benjamin Garner, planter
  • Patrick Bowling, slave of James H. Bowling, near Horsehead
  • B. J. Watson, laborer, Horsehead
  • Thos. Gray, colored, carpenter, Woodville
  • David Briscoe, slave of John F. Townsend
  • Thos. G. Summerville, planter, Woodville
  • Phil. Medley, slave of Geo. Martin, do.
  • Addison Brooks, slave of Miss N. N. Wood, Woodville
  • George W. Thomas, planter, Woodville
  • Peter Wood, Jr., do., do.
  • David Compton, slave of Catherine Gardner, near Horsehead
  • Henry Butler, colored, planter, Horsehead
  • Thomas C. Webster, laborer, Brandywine
  • G. W. Morton, planter, Woodville
  • Charles Proctor, do., Brandywine
  • Mitchell Green, slave of Peter Wood, Jr., Woodville
  • John Butler, colored, laborer, do.
  • Wm. Worthington, planter, do.
  • Henry Tolson, do., do.
  • Richard Douglass, slave of Geo. W. Morton
  • J. N. W. Wilson, teacher, Horsehead
  • Lloyd Brooks, slave of Eliza Wood, Woodville
  • Alleton Gray, colored, farmer, do.

Prince George’s Co., Maryland, 1864 Civil War Draftees (Part 2)

Extracted from Baltimore Sun, Baltimore, Md., 26 Sep 1864, pg. 1

Drafted on 24 September 1864, Ellicott’s Mills, Maryland

First District

  • William H. Martin, shoemaker
  • Thomas Waters, colored, Laurel
  • Charles E. Rogers, laborer, Beltsville
  • George Johnson, slave of Henry Mitchell, Beltsville
  • Henry Myers, laborer, Beltsville
  • Wm. Baker, blacksmith, county
  • Jas. Shields, laborer, Beltsville
  • Jas. Kelly, machinist, Laurel
  • Lewis Ridgely, col’d
  • John Talbert, farmer
  • Franklin Franklin, colored, Beltsville
  • Thomas Brent, slave of Richard D. Hall, do.
  • Samuel Thompson, farmer, Laurel
  • Wm. Robinson, colored
  • Matthias Harman, farmer, Beltsville
  • Joseph Stevens, colored, do.
  • Thos. Brashears, machinist, Laurel
  • James Kiernan, laborer, Beltsville
  • James McCauley, machinist, do.
  • John F. Waters, laborer, Laurel
  • Wm. Done, laborer, White Oak Bottom
  • Samuel Green, col’d, Laurel
  • Wm. Briggs, colored, Beltsville
  • Jas. Woods, laborer, do.
  • Wm. Benson, laborer, Laurel
  • John Thomas, colored, Beltsville
  • Notly Johnson, slave of Mrs. Nancy
  • S. Rufus Belt, storekeeper, Beltsville
  • Joshua Scott, laborer, Laurel
  • Patrick Connery, laborer, Beltsville
  • Jackson Kelly, carpenter, Laurel
  • Samuel Owens, farmer, Beltsville
  • Samuel Jackson, colored
  • Dennis Johnson, slave of Benjamin Beckett, Collington
  • George W. Duvall of G., farmer, Beltsville
  • John Baker, colored, Beltsville
  • Robert Walker, farmer, do.
  • Benj. Robinson, laborer, do.
  • Wm. Ewin, machinist, county
  • Peter Dugan, laborer, Beltsville
  • Amos Beall, slave of Mrs. J. W. Brown
  • John Sharewood, farmer, Beltsville
  • James Kelly, laborer, do.
  • Thomas Lynch, laborer
  • Henry Lantz, laborer, Beltsville
  • Dr. Benjamin Dorsey, farmer, do.
  • Eugene Luber, laborer, Laurel
  • John Turner, blacksmith, Beltsville
  • James E. Darnall, clerk, Laurel
  • Truman Thomas, colored, do.
  • Wm. O. Harvey, farmer, Beltsville
  • Hiram Harden, laborer
  • Saml. D. Carr, farmer, Laurel
  • Thomas Reed, laborer
  • Joseph Blackston, colored, Beltsville
  • George F. Donaldson, weaver, Laurel
  • Wm. T. Byon, farmer, Beltsville
  • Wm. Flanagan, laborer, do.
  • Ambrose Lillybridge, miller
  • Charles T. Tison, farmer, near Laurel
  • James Smith, laborer, Beltsville
  • Wm. Harding, do., do.
  • Martin Tigle, farmer, Laurel
  • George Pinion, colored, Beltsville
  • Robert Riley, laborer, do.
  • George W. Page, do., do.
  • Wm. Williams, slave of Mrs. Lizzie D. Jackson, Washington, D. C.
  • John Gleed, colored
  • George W. Clark, farmer, Vansville
  • Rezin Gaitior, colored
  • Joseph Miles, laborer, Laurel
  • Jeremiah Hall, laborer
  • Wm. O. Belt, student
  • Edward Batty, colored, Laurel
  • Leonard J. Mills, minister, Beltsville
  • Henry Marshall, machinist, Laurel
  • John Moreland, laborer, Beltsville
  • Samuel Ward, do., Laurel
  • David Thomas, slave of Rev. P. Waters, Laurel
  • Francis E. Morrison, bar-keeper
  • John Adams, laborer, Beltsville
  • Wm. Wright, slave of Alex. Keech, Hyattsville
  • James Simms, clerk, Beltsville
  • Michael McLaughlin, laborer, Beltsville
  • James Chalk, moulder, county
  • Jos. Jones, laborer, Beltsville
  • John Prout, colored, do.
  • William Curvan, laborer, do.
  • Chas. Robinson, colored, Laurel
  • John Etchinson, laborer, do.
  • Jacob Jones, colored, Beltsville
  • Wm. R. Mitchell, farmer, Laurel
  • Patrick Dermetay, laborer, Beltsville
  • George D. Swall, slave of Isaac Scaggs, do.
  • Aloysius Hopkins, laborer, do.
  • Saml. T. Earnest, laborer, Laurel
  • John Beam, farmer, Beltsville
  • William Stolkett, slave of Richard Jacobs, Patuxent
  • George H. Hall, storekeeper, Laurel
  • Owen Dawson, laborer, Beltsville
  • Israel Bash, slave of Wm. W. Hall, Beltsville
  • William R. Baker, laborer, do.
  • William Smith, colored
  • William H. Young, machinist, Laurel
  • J. N. Young, clerk, do.
  • John Hawkins, slave of Mrs. Lizzie Ward
  • Moses Bradley, colored
  • Thomas Bowie, of R., engineer, Beltsville
  • Wm. Matthews, machinist, Laurel
  • Robert Shipley, laborer, do.
  • Edw Herbert, farmer, Beltsville
  • John Hammet, slave of Dr. Benj. Berry, do.
  • Joseph Hopkins, laborer, do.
  • John Vermillion, Sr., laborer, do.
  • Octavius Knight, clerk, Laurel
  • Samuel Johnson, colored
  • Joseph Patch, farmer, Beltsville
  • Fred. Lyber, laborer
  • John Thompson, do., Beltsville
  • Thos. Robinson, colored, Laurel
  • Wm. McDonald, laborer, Beltsville
  • Pat’k Burns, do., do.
  • Joseph Harrison, colored
  • John D. McPherson, lawyer, Beltsville
  • Rich. H. Carrick, farmer, do.
  • And. Bell, Hyattsville, slave of Israel Jackson
  • A. C. McDaniel, minister, Laurel
  • Jas. Cagle, farmer, Beltsville
  • John Miller, farmer
  • Thos. Rowland, colored, at William Minnix’s
  • John R. Taylor, laborer, Beltsville
  • Walton Johnson, farmer, do.
  • Jno. Davis, laborer, county
  • James Clark, carpenter, Good Luck
  • Thomas M. Taylor, laborer, Beltsville
  • Joshua Kirby, farmer, do.

Second District

  • Augustus Beckett, slave of Nicholas C. Shipley
  • — Lee, (white,) age 38, county, at Clemson’s
  • Jacob Adams, colored, farmer, Captain Newman’s
  • Barney Connelly, laborer, county
  • John Scott, laborer, do.
  • John Moore, colored
  • William —, colored
  • Adam Green, colored
  • Robert Topkins, slave of Mrs. Mary B. McCubbin
  • Benj. Lanham, farmer, county
  • John McCloud, engineer, county
  • Wm. Magruder, slave of Lewis Magruder
  • Thomas Johnson, slave of Thomas Berry
  • — Knox, colored, at J. W. Wright’s
  • Benj. Griffith, slave of Mrs. Nath’l Suit
  • Henry King, farmer, county
  • George Prescott, slave of Henry T. Scott
  • Francis Shields, slave of Nicholas C. Shipley
  • Peter Smallwood, slave of Maria P. Dan
  • Columbus Tuttle, shoemaker, Bladensburg
  • Samuel King, planter, county
  • James W. Wilson, miller, Bladensburg
  • Charles Williams, colored
  • James J. Lovejoy, laborer, county
  • Robert White, slave of George W. Berry
  • Wm. Hanson, slave of Mrs. Albert D. Berry
  • Vernon Dorsey, clerk, Bladensburg
  • John Joy, Jr., farmer, county
  • Jno. M. Hayes, farmer, county
  • John Tucker, overseer, county
  • John Thomas, slave of Fielder Magruder
  • Samuel Brown, slave of Mrs. Alfred Wells
  • Thos. Gorham, colored, at Mr. Rowe’s
  • Barton T. Soper, laborer, county
  • Robt. Barris, colored, farmer, at J. C. Read’s
  • Richard B. Beam, farmer, county
  • Geo. M. Balls, laborer, county
  • James E. Cook, occupation none
  • John Mason, slave of Capt. J. Barney
  • Benj. Scaggs, colored, county
  • Wm. Snowden, colored
  • Zachariah Mangum, laborer, Bladensburg
  • Lorenzo Scott, colored, gardener, at C. B. Calvert’s
  • Andrew Lynch, stonemason, Bladensburg
  • John Hawkins, colored
  • Edward Philips, farmer, county
  • Zachariah Berry, of Zach., planter, county
  • Thomas Harwood, slave of Mrs. Alfred D. Berry
  • George Knight, colored, servant at Rev. Dr. Pinkney’s
  • John W. Morsell, oil store, county
  • George Taylor, miller, Bladensburg
  • John O. Duvall, farmer, county
  • Elisha Jones, farmer, county
  • Nace Calvert, colored, at Mrs. John E. Berry’s
  • Levi King, teamster, Bladensburg
  • Lewis Ma[…], planter, county
  • Daniel Bell, slave of Zachariah Berry, of Z
  • Jacob Compton, slave of Thos. E. Berry
  • Spea[?] Johnson, colored
  • William Norton, slave of Benj. O. Lowndes
  • Philip Hanson, slave of Charles Hayes
  • Elijah Gregory, farmer, county
  • Edward Lint, of Jesse, overseer, county
  • Edward Wood, slave of Edward H. Calvert
  • Charles Hoehn, shoemaker, Bladensburg
  • Jos. Kennedy, farmer
  • John E. Jones, farmer
  • Samuel F. Clark, farmer
  • Henry Owens, slave of Robert Clark
  • Odell W. Hilleary, farmer
  • Charles B. Harris, physician, county
  • Henry Freeman, blacksmith, county
  • Bradley Jones, farmer, county
  • Wm. Barnes, col’d, farmer, at J. C. Read’s
  • David Fall, colored
  • Wm. M. Wilson, planter
  • James Adams, col’d, farmer
  • Wm. Howard, slave of Willett Hilleary

Third District

  • Ignatius Nalley, overseer, near Upper Marlborough
  • Jno. Duvall, laborer, near Long Old Fields
  • Joseph Gordon, slave of Mary Bowie
  • Thos. Smoot, blacksmith, near Upper Marlborough
  • Peter G. Grimes, sheriff, Upper Marlborough
  • Jno. H. Turner, slave estate of R. Magruder
  • Sameul [sic] H. Crawford, carpenter, near Upper Marlborough
  • John Clark, slave of Mary W. Hilleary
  • John Wells, age 20, clerk
  • Thos. Bell, slave of A. M. Berry
  • Gilbert Gorden, slave of Mary Bowie
  • John Sweeny, overseer, near Long Old Fields
  • Thomas Sweeny, overseer, near Long Old Fields
  • Philip Mayhew, overseer, Upper Marlborough
  • Frisby Dent, slave of H. W. Clagett
  • Chew Burgess, slave of W. Hilleary
  • Geo. H. Richardson, laborer, near Long Old Fields
  • John Clifton, slave of Eliza D. Graham
  • Wm. Henson, slave of Gen. Thomas F. Bowie
  • Wm. H. Osborn, farmer, near Upper Marlborough
  • John Henry Stewart, slave of Zadoc Sasscer
  • Hilleary Butler, slave of J. A. Osborn
  • Allison Nichols, slave J. T. Sasscer
  • George Davage, slave of estate of Z. B. Bell
  • Alexander Barnes, slave of Thos. H. Osborn
  • William Beall, slave of R. S. Hill
  • Daniel Gant, slave of M. S. Plummer
  • Wm. Hodges, slave of Wash. J. Beall
  • Thos. Simpson, laborer, near Long Old Field
  • Samuel Crawford
  • Robert Green, colored, near Croom
  • William Dayton, slave of R. S. Hill
  • Frank Young, slave of estate of Z. Sasscer
  • Wm. H. Sasscer, farmer, Upper Marlborough
  • Otho Berry, slave of estate of R. McGregor
  • Geo. H. Bunnell, clerk, Upper Marlborough
  • Benjamin H. C. Bowie, farmer, near Upper Marlborough
  • Edward D. Young, laborer, do.
  • A. F. Brooks, age 20, clerk
  • Rezin Williams, slave of E. G. W. Hall
  • Frank Brown, slave of R. B. B. Chew
  • Frank Booth, slave of Fender Suit
  • John L. Thompson, overseer, near Upper Marlborough
  • John Sheckles, age 27, teacher
  • Cato Crawford, slave of Thos. Clagett
  • Wm. Albert Brooks, age 25, Upper Marlborough
  • Robert Blackiston, slave of W. B. Bowie
  • Lewis Fritch, coachman, Upper Marlboro
  • John F. Young, laborer, Upper Marlboro
  • John W. Brown, baker, Upper Marlboro
  • Richard O. Hodges, farmer, Upper Marlboro
  • Wm. F. Bowie, farmer, Upper Marlboro
  • Wm. Bowie, slave of estate of R. McGregor
  • Thos. Hammond, slave of Eliza C. Bowie
  • George H. Randall, laborer, Long Old Fields
  • John Lee, slave of Wm. P. Pumphrey
  • Jas. Jones, of James, farmer, near Long Old Fields
  • Washington Marlow, slave of Wm. F. Berry
  • John W. Bowie, farmer, Upper Marlboro
  • John Schell, carpenter, Upper Marlboro
  • Geo. C. Merrick, lawyer, Upper Marlboro
  • George Woodward, slave of John Hodges, Sr.
  • Timothy Ryard, laborer, Upper Marlboro
  • Robert Queen, slave of estate of Dr. R. W. Brown
  • Philip Galloway, slave of John Hodges, Sr.
  • Botelor Stalor, slave of Samuel M. Brooke
  • Horace Wells, colored, near Upper Marlboro
  • Cornelius Gordon, slave of Mary Bowie
  • John B. Farr, blacksmith, Upper Marlboro
  • John Hall, colored, near Upper Marlboro
  • John Dorsey, slave of Mary Bowie
  • Clifford N. Bowie, age 24, gentleman
  • Joseph Butler, slave of estate of H. C. Scott
  • Thos. W. Anderson, merchant, Upper Marlboro’
  • William Fisher, overseer, Upper Marlboro’
  • J. Lansdale Ghieslin, clerk, Upper Marlboro’
  • James Harris, age 34, clerk
  • Robert W. Selby, overseer, near Croom
  • J. W. Mayhew, age 35, laborer
  • Robert Turner, slave of estate of R. McGregor
  • Levi Gant, slave of C. L. Young
  • Rafe Harrison, slave of Major J. F. Lee
  • Pompey West, slave of estate of Z. Sasscer
  • John H. McCullough, Clerk, Upper Marlboro’
  • Nat Wood, slave of Charles B. Calvert
  • Thomas Proctor, colored, hostler, near Upper Marlboro’

Prince George’s Co., Maryland, 1864 Civil War Draftees (Part 1)

Extracted from Baltimore Sun, Baltimore, Md., 31 May 1864, pg. 1

Drafted on 30 May 1864, Ellicott’s Mills, Maryland

Fourth District

  • Lewis Pyles, slave of Jno. Y. Berry
  • Geo. Johnson, slave of Dr. J. H. S. Skinner
  • Benjamin T. Wilson, near Croom
  • William Davis, colored, near Nottingham
  • Jacob Curtin, near T. B.
  • Daniel Hanson, slave of James S. Bowie
  • Samuel Revis, slave of T. G. Fenton
  • Frank Robinson, near T. B.
  • Mortimer Tayman, near Croom
  • David Crack, slave of Mrs. A. Brooks
  • William L. Woodburn, near Nottingham
  • Richard Thomas, slave of Fielder Bowie
  • Noble Herd, slave of Henry S. Mitchell
  • John H. Gant, slave of Fielder Bowie
  • Nathan Duckett, slave of Joseph H. Turner
  • Ebenezer Russell, slave of James Nailor of Jas.
  • James Pickney, slave of Dr. Clagett
  • John P. Hall, near Horsehead
  • Wm. Carroll, slave of Mr. J. H. S. Skinner
  • John Mackall, slave of James Nailor of James
  • S. R. Gordon, near Croom
  • Wash. Gray, slave of estate of E. L. Perry
  • Jas. Thomas of Jas., near Brandywine
  • Ignatius Fletcher, slave of Wm. Duvall
  • Frank Griffith, slave of Fielder Bowie
  • Henry Hager, slave of Henry S. Mitchell
  • Edward Ford, slave of James J. Bowie
  • Mortimer Grant, slave of Fielder Bowie
  • John Addison, colored, near Brandywine
  • Thos. Silby, near Nottingham
  • Anthony Addison, slave of estate of Wm. M. Bowie
  • Wm. Kyler, colored, near Nottingham
  • Richard Curtis, slave of E. G. Perry
  • Thos. Diggs, slave of Wm. H. Burch
  • John Hall, slave of estate of Jas. Baden
  • Upton Bruce, slave of Mrs. S. Bruce
  • John Hamilton, slave of Clement D. Hill
  • John W. Hays
  • James Thomas, near Croom
  • Edw. Lynch, do.
  • Jesse Allen, slave of Jno. A. Pumphrey
  • Richard Windsor, near Brandywine
  • Alex. Grose, slave of R. D. Burroughs
  • Leonard Taylor, near Croom
  • Wm. E. Peach, near Nottingham
  • Wm. E. Duvall, do.
  • Joe Cosey, slave of Clement D. Hill
  • Enoch G. Perry, near Nottingham

Fifth District

  • George Diggs, slave of Wm. Lyle
  • J. J. Lumis, T. B.
  • James Tayman, near Surratt’s
  • Emory Monroe, Ackuk Church
  • Jas. Cogy, slave of Mrs. M. E. Edelin
  • Edward Bowie, slave of John H. Hardesty
  • Madison G. Gibbons, slave of Matthew N. Hoff
  • Jas. Martin, near T. B.
  • Thomas F. Cassidy, Broad Creek
  • John Beasley
  • Lewis Conner, slave of Enock Shorne
  • Richard Bell, Piscataway
  • Charles Dickson, slave of John B. Edelin
  • Henry Butler, colored, Fort Washington
  • R. L. Hatton
  • Henry A. Young, near Farmington
  • Rezin Beander, slave of Nancy Goles
  • Saml. Stewart, slave of Mrs. M. E. Edelin
  • George Chase, slave of Sarah Marshall
  • John Thorn, Franklin
  • Wm. Harren, Piscataway
  • August Campbell, slave of R. W. Hunter
  • Wm. Davis, slave of B. [or R.] D. Hatten
  • John Briscoe, slave of Benedict
  • D. T. Carroll, Piscataway
  • Wm. T. Robinsen
  • John Hunter, near Broad Creek
  • Wm. Crook
  • Wm. J. Tabbritt, Fort Washington
  • Alfred Locker, slave of the estate of R. S. Jenkins
  • Charles Boswell, Farmington
  • Walter W. Thorn, Ridge
  • Nich. Queen, slave of W. H. Gwynn
  • Claggett Thorn, Franklin
  • J. Chipebase, Ackuk Church
  • J. Goddard, Broad Creek
  • James Warring, slave of the estate of J. H. Lowe
  • Warren M. Ives, T. B.
  • John Ballman, Broad Creek
  • Samuel Edelin, slave of P. R. Edelin
  • Henry Pickney, slave of Saml. Cole
  • Wm. Jefferson
  • Wm. A. Gibbons, T. B.
  • Saml. Hawkins, slave of E. H. Wyville
  • Benj. Kidwell, T. B.
  • Alfred Marshall, slave of Henry Bowling
  • Geo. E. Gwynn
  • Noah Wesley, colored, Piscataway
  • J. Y. Bryan, Ridge
  • Franklin Tiffett
  • Henry Harrison, colored, Piscataway
  • Oliver Hawton, Bryan Landing
  • Edward Fry, Ridge
  • Joshua Butler, Bryan Landing
  • Ben. Marlow, slave of Nathaniel

Sixth District

  • Clayborn,slave of Judem Wallace
  • Edwd. Kemp, near Green
  • Richard Brown, Crawford Mill
  • Jos. T. Payne
  • John H. Lowe, Long Old Fields
  • Gilbert Grace, slave of Thomas R. Berry
  • Richard Lynch, slave of Bradley Stansbury
  • Charles Brown, slave of Joseph Bird
  • Stephen Hall, slave of Wm. Bayne
  • E. H. Nigh, Long Old Fields
  • Robert Locker, colored, near Long Old Fields
  • Wm. Thomas, slave of Thomas Ryan
  • Grafton Copper, slave of Thomas R. Berry
  • Jeff. Burgess, near Long Old Fields
  • William Brent, Long Old Fields
  • Thomas Savoy, slave of Calvert Brown
  • John Carroll, slave of John S. Talbott
  • Milburn Baily, slave of Thomas W. Soper
  • Simon Gray, slave of Richard Q. Bowling
  • Alexander H. Grime
  • Francis Talbott
  • Rich’d Wikler
  • George Grace, slave of Thomas R. Berry
  • Wm. Hutchinson, near Long Old Fields
  • Solomon Blackwell, slave of Thomas Brooks
  • Norris Smith
  • Lewis Roagey, slave of Wm. Bayne
  • John Washington, slave of Allen Dodge

[next, Draftees of 24 September 1864]

Charting Social Relationships

Though every genealogy lecturer and “how to” book now espouses cluster genealogy — that is, of course, the extension of your research into the associates of your ancestors — no one seems to have come up with a good way to keep track of this.  The most important tools of the genealogist, i. e. the pedigree chart and the family group record, in fact, seem to tell us the opposite:  that the only “important” people are our direct ancestors, and possibly their siblings.  Why hasn’t anyone come up with an easy way to chart the social relationships so vital to cluster genealogy?
There are a few tools that can help us.  My personal choice in genealogy software, The Master Genealogist (now in version 7), seems best suited for this among the various software brands.  Most reviewers and users shy away from TMG due to what they call “a steep learning curve”, but in my opinion, once you figure it out, this is the most powerful and flexible program.  The large manual helps a lot, and I have personally called the author of the program and received step-by-step instructions for how to do a task I was having trouble with.  The feature of this software that is relevant to our current discussion is the “WITNESSES” tag, which allows you to connect indirect parties to any event.  These events will then display in the timeline view of both the direct parties and the witnesses.  Another feature that is new to version 7 is the “ASSOCIATES” view window.  This window can display on your screen alongside the timeline of events and family group windows, and lists the other parties to your ancestor’s events.
But these features, though a huge step in the right direction, still far short of allowing one to view the social dynamics of our ancestor’s world — the true goal of cluster genealogy.
Another development — believe it or not — came not from the mind of a genealogist, but a psychologist!  Genograms were developed by family therapists as a way of charting family relationships.  These genograms share the basic form of a descendant chart for three generations (children, parents, and grandparents), but also allow for additional connections to be made with non-relatives.  Each link is coded according to the type of emotional relationship; for example, “close”, “friends”, “estranged”, “bitter”, etc.  While this can help in providing context when discernible, it will be difficult for the genealogist to take full advantage of this aspect of the process.  However, the allowance to attach additional associates and connections is a strength that should be pursued further.  The software GenoPro is designed to closely follow the genogram process, and has an extremely graphical interface, but falls short in its power as a pure genealogy program.
Personally, I have tried several other options.  MS PowerPoint has an organization chart template that works relatively well, but the limitation to the size of the “slide” will not work when attempting to chart a relatively large social group.  I have had better success using MS Word, with its WordArt functions, to draw circles and lines.  The text and page size can be adjusted as needed, but it is also a very time-consuming process.
I have found a potential solution in — once again — another field.  The mindmapping software CAYRA ( was designed for “mindmapping”-style brainstorming and note-taking, but appears to be almost perfectly suited for the task at hand.  A little bit of tweaking, and I think it would be perfect.  I recommend all who are interested to download the free software and use it, at least for its intended purpose for which it is quite useful.
There is to my knowledge no other solution to this problem, but there is a demand for the solution!  Software programmers — if you are reading this — what are you waiting for?